I study (1) the types of work structures that enable managers to reduce the risks of conformity traps (they conform to shared practices and beliefs when they should have deviated) and deviation traps (they deviate when they should have conformed). I find that decision makers fall into conformity or deviation traps in work environments that trigger the same psychological states (structural congruity). But decision makers bring down both errors in work environments that trigger clashing psychological states (structural incongruity);
(2) the types of ideological beliefs that increase managerial tolerance of decision errors and resistance to implementing incongruous structures. I find that managers who trade off employee freedom for protection prefer structures that increase the risks of conformity traps—and managers who trade off employee protection for freedom prefer structures that increase the risks of deviation traps.